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This comprises the National Territory of the Philippines. 9522, approved on March 10, 2000 amended both laws and defined the archipelagic baselines as “Regime of Islands” (section 2) This definition is consistent with Art.121 of the United Nations Convention of the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), where the Philippines took an active part. The petitioners filed the case in their capacities as citizens of the Philippines, taxpayers and legislators.Article I of the 1987 Constitution provides that the "national territory comprises the Philippine archipelago, with all the islands and waters embraced therein and all other territories which the Philippines has sovereignty or jurisdiction." Laws enacted by Congress defined the baselines of the territorial sea of the Philippine archipelago. Rodolfo Severino, in his article “ Clarifying the New Philippines Baseline Law ” (Republic Act No. Noteworthy to mention are the two grounds invoked by the petitioners in questioning the constitutionality of the law:”1).Carpio entitled, “The Rules of Law in the West Philippine Sea Dispute,” he stated that China’s 9-dash claim encroaches on 80% on the Philippines’ 200-nm exclusive economic zone (EEZ) and 100% of its 150-nm extended continental shelf (ECS) facing the South China sea – what the Philippines call West Philippine sea.China’s 9-dash line claim has similar effects on the EEZs and ECSs of Vietnam, Malaysia, Brunei and Indonesia facing the South China Sea.” Justice Antonio T.Carpio’s speech before Philippine Women Judges Association, entitled “Protecting the Nation’s Marine Wealth in the West Philippine Sea,” March 6, 2014 includes the illustration on the 9-Dashed Lines.that “maritime dispute in the West Philippine Sea could be more easily resolved if all the claimant States agreed on two things: first, on the applicable law to govern the maritime dispute, and second, on the historical facts on the West Philippine Sea.” David Rosenberg in his article, “The Paradox of the South China Sea Disputes,” considers the nine-dash line claim as the most controversial maritime territorial claim.
It does not extend the baselines to Spratlys or to Scarborough Shoal, both of which China and Vietnam claim in their territory, while the Philippines claims a part of what are called “ Protest made by China remains. Carpio in his speech before Philippine Women Judges Association, entitled “Protecting the Nation’s Marine Wealth in the West Philippine Sea,” March 6, 2014, provided an illustration of the baselines defined by Republic Act Nos. The Philippines’ claim to the Spratlys and the historic claim to Sabah remain unresolved.Rosenberg traced the history as claim as far “back as December 1914 when Hu Jinjie, a Chinese cartographer, published a map with a line around only the Pratas and Paracels, entitled ‘The Chinese Territorial Map Before the Qianglong-Jiaqing Period of the Qing Dynasty (AD 1736–1820)” until “1953 when the two dotted line portion in the Gulf of Tonkin was deleted by Premier Zhou Enlai’s approval.China’s claim is based on the 9-dashed line which covers a total area almost 90% of the South China Sea.In a speech delivered by Senior Associate Justice Antonio T. She is the author of Legal Research and Citations (Rexl Book Store) a seminal book published in numerous editions and a part-time professor on Legal Research in some law schools in the Metro-Manila.
The Philippines is an archipelago of 7,107 islands with a land area of 299,740 sq. It is surrounded by the Pacific Ocean on the East, South China Sea on the North and the West and the Celebes Sea on the South. The decision upholding the constitutionality of the law was penned by Justice Antonio T. The petitioners of the case were professors of law, law students and a legislator.