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Posted by / 01-Nov-2014 09:42

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There were some examples of public activism, reflecting the vibrancy that is still common on the Chinese internet.

An online petition in support of five feminists who were detained for distributing leaflets against sexual harassment on public transportation may have contributed to their release in April 2015.[6] And the environmental documentary China boasts the world’s largest number of internet users, yet obstacles to access remain, including poor infrastructure, particularly in rural areas; a telecommunications industry dominated by state-owned enterprises; centralized control over international gateways; and sporadic, localized shutdowns of internet service to quell social unrest.

Nationwide blocking, filtering, and monitoring systems delay or interrupt access to international websites.

The Chinese Communist Party (CCP) under general secretary and state president Xi Jinping continued to pursue “cyberspace sovereignty” as a top policy strategy during the coverage period of this report.

From December 2013 to December 2014, the mobile internet population grew from 500 million to 557 million, accounting for 86 percent of all internet users.[14] Authorities exercise tight control over cybercafes and other public access points, which are licensed by the Ministry of Culture in cooperation with other state entities.[15] By 2012, chain companies had absorbed around 40 percent of cybercafes.[16] Domestic news reports said more than 10,000 locations closed between 20, and cybercafes provided access for less than 20 percent of internet users in 2013.[17] In November 2014, the Chinese government reversed its policy and loosened restrictions on opening up cybercafes, lifting a 2013 requirement that they had to be run by chain stores, which had led to the proliferation of illegal establishments.[18] Though demand remained relatively high in rural areas and small towns, the number of internet users throughout China who were connecting through cybercafes and public computers remained relatively constant in 2014, at 18 percent.[19] Costly, inefficient fixed-line broadband service has contributed to the shift toward mobile.

Individuals imprisoned for legitimate online speech during the coverage period included renowned human rights lawyer Pu Zhiqiang, who was criminally charged with inciting ethnic hatred and picking quarrels on social media, and 70-year-old journalist Gao Yu, who was jailed for seven years for supposedly leaking “state secrets” to an overseas website.

Availability and Ease of Access The authorities reported in January 2015 that there were 649 million internet users in China.[7] The average connection speed was comparatively slow at 3.8 Mbps.[8] Since 2011, internet adoption rates have slowed as the urban market approaches saturation, according to the China Internet Network Information Center (CNNIC), an administrative agency under the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology (MIIT).[9] Though the digital divide between urban and rural areas narrowed marginally in 2014, 72.5 percent of users were based in cities, and more were documented in Eastern China than in the less developed Central and Western regions combined.[10] Penetration rates vary by province, from Beijing (75 percent) to Jiangxi in the southeast (32 percent).[11] Overall internet penetration stood at 48 percent.[12] The CNNIC continued to report a gender gap among internet users, with males making up 56 percent of the total.Mobile replaced fixed-line broadband (which had dwarfed dial-up since 2005[13]) as China’s preferred means of accessing the internet for the first time in 2012.The aim of establishing control was particularly evident in the government’s attitude toward foreign internet companies, its undermining of digital security protocols, and its ongoing erosion of user rights, including through extralegal detentions and the imposition of prison sentences for online speech.China was the world’s worst abuser of internet freedom in the 2015 [1]— Xi declared that “the internet has become the main battlefield for public opinion struggle.” This represented considerably stronger rhetoric than that used by his predecessor, Hu Jintao, who had merely referred to “guidance” and “channeling” of public opinion online.All of Google’s content and communication services were fully blocked during the coverage period, marking an escalation in censorship from that experienced by the company’s user base in mainland China in previous years.

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As in past years, although pressure on overseas websites and companies increased, the real targets of repression were domestic internet users.